Background and Aims
Although colonic perforation is a dreadful adverse event associated with stent placement, data on this topic are sparse. We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of colonic perforation and factors related to its occurrence in patients who received self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) for malignant colorectal obstruction.
We retrospectively reviewed the data of 474 patients with malignant colorectal obstruction who received endoscopic SEMS insertion from April 2004 to May 2011 in Severance Hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital. Early perforation, defined as perforation occurring within 2 weeks, was assessed in bridge-to-surgery (n = 164) and palliative stent placement patient groups (n = 310). Delayed perforation was analyzed using data from the palliative stent placement group alone.
The technical and clinical success rates were 90.5% and 81.0%, respectively. Early and delayed perforations occurred in 2.7% (13/474) and 2.7% (8/301) of patients, respectively. Among 21 patients with perforation, 14 (66.7%) received emergency surgery and 5 (23.8%) died within 30 days after perforation. Regarding the perforation-related factors, age ≥70 years (odds ratio, 3.276; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.041-10.309) and sigmoid colonic location (odds ratio, 7.706; 95% CI, 1.681-35.317) were independently associated with occurrence of early perforation. Stent location in the flexure (hazard ratio, 17.573; 95% CI, 2.004-154.093) and absence of peritoneal carcinomatosis (hazard ratio, 6.139; 95% CI, 1.150-32.776) were significantly associated with delayed perforation.
The perforation-related 30-day mortality rate was 23.8%. Older age and sigmoid colonic location were significantly associated with occurrence of early perforation, whereas flexure location and absence of peritoneal carcinomatosis were related to delayed perforation.