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  • Identification of volumetric laser endomicroscopy features of colon polyps with histologic correlation

    Background and Aims
    There are limited data on the use of volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) for imaging colon polyps. Our aim was to identify VLE features of colon polyps. Methods
    A total of 45 patients were included; 43 underwent endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal polyps 2 cm or greater. These polyps were then scanned with VLE immediately after resection. Two patients who underwent partial colonic resection served as controls. Results
    Forty-three polyps were included with review of matching histology: 3 intramucosal cancer (IMCA), 5 tubular adenoma (TAs)/tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 9 TVA with only low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 5 serrated adenoma, and 21 TA with LGD. All TAs and TVAs were hyper-reflective compared with normal tissue. Effacement occurred in 82.4% (14/17) of the colonic polyps with advanced pathology (TVA with HGD/IMCA) compared with 11.6% (3/26) with non-advanced pathology (TA with LGD and serrated adenoma) (P Conclusions
    In this ex vivo clinicopathologic study, we show that there are distinct VLE features of colon polyps that may help identify polyps or features of a higher-grade lesion. This may have implications for possible in vivo application to aid in dysplasia or polyp detection.
  • Hot snare polypectomy with or without saline solution/epinephrine lift for the complete resection of small colorectal polyps

    Background and Aims
    The criteria for a standard polypectomy technique for complete removal of small colorectal polyps has not yet been established. This study aimed to compare the complete resection rate of hot snare polypectomy (HSP) with that of EMR for small, sessile, or flat polyps. Methods
    Patients with 5- to 9-mm non-pedunculated colorectal polyps were prospectively randomized to the HSP or EMR group. The presence of residual polyps was assessed by performing histologic assessment of 4-quadrant forceps biopsy specimens taken from the edges of the polypectomy site. The primary outcome was the complete resection rate after HSP or EMR; the secondary outcomes were the proportion of procedure-related adverse events and specimen-loss rate. Sample size was estimated using a superiority trial design. We assumed that the complete resection rate of the EMR group would be at least 8% higher than that of the HSP group. Results
    A total of 382 polyps in 269 patients were assessed and randomly assigned to each method using 4 × 4 block randomization. Of these, 353 polyps were finally analyzed based on the pathology results. The mean polyp size was 6.3 ± 1.3 mm. The complete resection rate did not differ between the HSP and EMR groups (88.4% [152/172] vs 92.8% [168/181], respectively; P = .2). The intraprocedural bleeding rate, immediately after polypectomy, was significantly higher in the HSP group than in the EMR group (5.2% vs 0.6%, respectively; P = .009). However, clinically significant bleeding and tissue retrieval failure rates did not differ between the groups. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, sessile serrated adenoma/polyps or hyperplastic polyps were almost 3 times (odds ratio, 2.824; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-7.75; P = .044) more likely to be incompletely resected compared with other conventional adenomatous polyps. Except for pathology, we found no significant independent predictors for incomplete resection. Conclusion
    EMR for small non-pedunculated colorectal polyps is not superior to HSP in terms of complete resection or safety. Both methods can be performed according to the endoscopist’s preference. (Clinical trial registration number: KCT0001640; cris.nih.go.kr.)
  • Small and diminutive hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon: Are they innocent or guilty of a crime?

    Over the past 30 years, serrated polyps (SPs) of the colorectum have gained increasing attention in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention.1 Historically, this group of lesions was called “hyperplastic polyps” (HPs), which were considered innocuous, and the term “serrated” was used to describe the “saw-toothed” architecture in their crypt epithelium.2 The heterogeneity of SPs was not recognized until 1990, when Longacre and Fenoglio-Preiser3 proposed the term “serrated adenoma” (now termed “traditional serrated adenoma,” or TSA) to describe a subgroup of SPs that not only share the serrated crypt architecture of HPs but also have cytologic dysplasia.